AKI NPRO process defined


  • Brainstorming
  • Analyse customer and market
  • Idea generation
  • Macroenvironment has 6 sources of new ideas:

1. Technological
2. Political/legal
3. Demographic
4. Social/cultural
5. Economic
6. Natural

  • Technology push / market pull / society demand
  • Screened ideas into projects
  • Development of product/customer requirements
  • Concept generation - Form, benefit/need, technology


  • Purpose of design is:

1. Aesthetics
2. Ergonomics
3. Function
4. Manufacturability
5. Servicing
6. Disassembly

  • Design for different routes e.g. speed to market, ease of manufacture, customer needs, corporate identity.
  • Use of CAD improves design and makes it far easier, reduces need for prototypes.

Rapid Prototype

  • There are two main types of prototypes:

1. Comprehensive is complete, fully functioning and full sized
2. Focused is not fully functioning or developed, designed to examine specific attributes

  • Reduces product development costs (40-70%)
  • All use computer generated models
  • Virtual prototypes becoming more popular to cut costs
  • Different types of rapid prototypes - SLA and SLS most popular
  • Not always good representation of final part (materials, dimensions etc.)

Prototype Tooling

  • Run test prototypes before final tool
  • Reduces cost of producing final tool before being sure it is correct
  • Virtual simulation software becoming more popular for tool design (reduces the need for prototype tools by simulating conditions before tool design finalised)
  • True 3D moulding analysis now used (even fibre orientation during moulding) software such as moldflow

Production Tooling

  • Choosing correct material very important
  • Correct design and manufacture reduces costs further down the line mainly due to improved wearing (Cr content), and good tolerances.Extremely complex tooling for some products - not a problem if good design of tool has been carried out
  • Manufacture (CNC milling etc)
  • Tolerances very fine


  • Validation can be defined as: the process of confirming, corroborating, substantiating or checking that something is "as intended"
  • Usually involves checking products characteristics against defined requirements
  • Finished parts must meet certain validation standards before they can be put into full production
  • Comparing model data to real life data for validating parts
  • Some form of comparison must be carried out - either between simulation and real life or just between various simulations
  • Performance of final product and processes involved in making it can be validated


  • Continued product optimisation and cost evaluation
  • Production process continually optimised (problems in production can lead to improved processing)
  • Savings for customer constantly evaluated to remain most competitive
  • Tool modification and repair where necessary

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